synchronous motors are used in various applications that require precision Speed and high Efficiency require, such as B. in electric cars in the Automotive industry, in generators and in industrial drives. The article highlights current developments and innovations on the market and provides basic knowledge about the powerful synchronous motor.

ABB synchronous motor



Synchronous motor – the most important things in brief

Synchronous motors have become established in numerous industrial applications thanks to their ability to run synchronously with the stator's rotating magnetic field and thus a constant speed to ensure. Current developments focus on increasing the efficiency and power density of these engines. Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are at the forefront of this development as they offer greater efficiency and lower weight through the use of powerful magnets.

Modern synchronous machines increasingly integrate advanced control technologies and IoT capabilitiesto enable precise, real-time monitoring and control. Electrically Excited Synchronous Motors (EESM) also offer the flexibility to adjust the magnetic field to specific requirements, making them ideal for variable load applications. Another trend is the use of reluctance synchronous motors, which do not require rare earths and are therefore more cost-effective and environmentally friendly.

The innovations also focus on the reduction of noise and vibration emissions. This makes the engines quieter and more efficient. As materials and manufacturing techniques continue to advance, synchronous motors are becoming more robust and durable, expanding their potential for use in demanding environments.

Synchronous motor innovations

Below we present new developments and innovations in the field of synchronous motors:

Synchronous reluctance machine for higher energy efficiency classes

Buchele synchronous motor

13.06.2024 | The fulfillment of the Energy efficiency class IE4 for electric motors presents manufacturers with considerable challenges. Especially with Asynchronous machines, which are known for their robust and low-maintenance operation, achieving this high efficiency class requires considerable development and cost effort. Asynchronous motors, often referred to as reliable all-rounders in the electric motor world, are, however, less efficient in the partial load range.

Buchele synchronous motor rotor plateIn contrast, synchronous reluctance machines, which are currently being developed by the electric motor specialist BEN Buchele are an attractive alternative. These synchronous machines are characterized by better efficiency, since only minimal losses occur in the rotor. Synchronous reluctanceEngines work by exploiting the smallest magnetic Resistances (reluctance), which results in a very efficient rotational movement.

In contrast to an asynchronous machine, in which the rotor runs asynchronously to the rotating field of the stator, the rotor of a synchronous reluctance machine rotates synchronous to the stator magnetic fieldThis leads to almost no core losses, which is particularly advantageous for achieving energy efficiency class IE4.

A particular challenge with synchronous reluctance machines, however, is that they cannot be started directly from the mains and therefore require the use of a Inverters In contrast to earlier times when converters were complex and expensive, they are now widely used and the investment costs are quickly amortized through the energy costs saved.

Research project for automotive test benches

An actual Research Project by BEN Buchele shows the potential of synchronous reluctance machines. The company is developing a synchronous reluctance machine for an automobile test bench that is intended to increase the blow-out speed of a cross-flow air blower from 160 km/h to 180 km/h without changing the size of the motor.

The aim is to achieve energy efficiency class IE4 while offering a compact, powerful drive solution. "The initial test results of the prototype are promising," says Bastian Kohlmann, Research & Development at BEN Buchele. "So far, efficiency, design points, torque and speed have been achieved as planned. This makes us confident for further drive projects with synchronous reluctance machines."

ABB and CERN identify energy saving potential

May 19.05.2024, XNUMX | The European Laboratory for Particle Physics Cern and ABB have identified significant energy saving potential in the cooling and ventilation systems of the Geneva research center through a strategic research partnership. The study, carried out between 2022 and 2023, included detailed energy efficiency audits that showed a savings potential of 800% for the 17,4 engine.

As part of the partnership, ABB and CERN conducted a comprehensive analysis that resulted in a plan to reduce the electricity consumption of the Cooling and ventilation systems led. Annual energy savings of up to 31 GWh were identified through data-supported audits. These savings could cover the electricity needs of more than 18.000 European households and reduce CO2-Reduce emissions by 4 kt – that is comparable to CO2-Binding over 420.000 trees.

The Energy efficiency audits evaluated the performance and efficiency of the engine technologies based on their operating data. This methodology helped identify the greatest energy saving opportunities in CERN's motor fleet. Experts analyzed a variety of data sources, including digitally connected engines Scada-CERN system as well as data from pumps, pipelines and Measurement Technology. Through the comprehensive analysis of the entire system, the motors with the highest potential for increasing energy efficiency were identified.

Cern plans to upgrade to high-efficiency synchronous reluctance motors

In the next step, CERN will develop a detailed plan to upgrade the motors in accordance with the recommendations of the energy efficiency audit. This will involve high-efficiency synchronous reluctance motors from Efficiency class IE5 for use with frequency converters These modern motors not only offer improved energy efficiency, but will also be digitally networked to enable condition monitoring. This networking allows the condition and performance to be continuously monitored. This makes them as available as possible.

stepper motor | Precise low cost positioning

May 24.05.2024, XNUMX | Stepper motors are one special kind from synchronous motors, which have become indispensable in the industry. They ensure precise movements and flexibility in countless applications steering. They have high accuracy, are robust and offer a wide range of torques and speeds. Here you can find the latest stepper motor innovations.

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IE5 + synchronous motor for variant reduction and TCO reduction

10.12.2021 | NORD goes one better in terms of energy efficiency and introduces its new one synchronous motor in front. It offers a consistently high level of efficiency over the entire adjustment range, and it really does LogiDrive concept for applications in the Intralogistik in terms of variant reduction and energy efficiency to a new level. 

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Water-cooled synchronous motor with 60.000 Nm torque

07.05.2020 | Baumüller offers many of its electric motors with water cooling. With a new synchronous motor, the drive specialist has now expanded its DST 2 series to include torques from 325 to 60.000 Nm. But even with all other electric motors with water cooling, the very compact design is more powerful than that of fan-cooled motors. 

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Smooth motor with surface finishing for the beverage industry

21.10.2019 | NORD presents its new synchronous motor, which combines a significant improvement in energy efficiency with the NSD Tuph surface refinement. This makes it suitable for the demanding environmental conditions and high hygiene requirements in beverage logistics and production. 

The energy-efficient permanent magnetsynchronous motor The latest generation significantly reduces losses compared to the current IE4 series. The unventilated smooth motor achieves its high efficiency, which in some cases is well above the IE5 efficiency class, over a wide torque range and is therefore suitable for economical operation in the partial load range.

The compact IE5 + motor offers high power density in a small space and will initially come onto the market in a size for the power range from 0,25 to 1,1 kW with a continuous torque of 1,6 to 4,8 Nm. The Engine concept is gradually being expanded to include additional sizes and capacities. The easy-to-clean, corrosion-resistant and wash-down-capable motor is suitable for use in hygiene-sensitive and harsh environments. Surface finishing and protection class IP69K are optional.

Corrosion protection for all

The Surface finishing NSD Tuph offers high-performance corrosion protection for gear units, smooth motors, frequency converters and motor starters in washdown-optimized cast aluminum housing. The drives are easy to clean and are largely insensitive to acids and alkalis.

Even the use of high-pressure cleaners or contact with aggressive media are easily possible. The fanless smooth motors prevent the spread of germs and also ensure smooth running. They are available as synchronous and asynchronous motors and meet efficiency classes IE2, IE3, IE4 and now even IE5 +.

Individual lauter tuns

The drive specialist has a standardized drive concept for the equipment of lauter tuns Lautertun developed that also enables customer-specific adjustments from the extensive modular system. The complete drive units are precisely designed for the respective lauter tun. A single drive system with two gear motors takes over the entire lautering process up to the emptying of the vat.

With the combination of geared motor and industrial gearbox, torques of up to 282.000 Nm for lauter tuns of up to 30 m3 are achieved. A second gear motor is used to drive the lifting device, which works with millimeter precision even under full load. Just in time for this year's Braubeviale, Nord also has the proven drive concept for microbreweries adapted from 2 m3 tub volume.

High-speed electric drives from a few to 150 kW

Oct 10.10.2019, XNUMX | The wide range of high-speed electric drives for almost every requirement GMN consists of three product groups that differ, among other things, in their degree of customization: MSP Basic complete engines, semi-flexible solutions from the PSM series and customer-specific special designs.

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IE5+ synchronous motors with significantly improved energy efficiency

02.10.2019 | NORD presents a new one IE5 synchronous motor, which achieves a significant improvement in energy efficiency. The energy-efficient permanent magnet synchronous motor of the latest generation significantly reduces losses compared to the current IE4 series.

The unventilated smooth motor achieves its high efficiency, which in some cases is well above the IE5 efficiency class, over a wide torque range and is therefore ideal for economical operation in the partial load range. The compact IE5+ motor offers high power density in a small installation space and will initially come onto the market in a size for the power range of 0,25 to 1,1 kW with a continuous torque of 1,6 to 4,8 Nm.

The engine concept is gradually being expanded to include additional sizes and performances. Because it is easy to clean, corrosion-resistant and wash-down capable, the motor is also suitable for use in hygiene-sensitive and harsh environments. The Surface finishing NSD Tuph and IP69K protection are available.

A pair of encoder is built into the housing as standard so that it cannot be damaged, a mechanical one Brake is optionally integrated. The IE5+ motor can be combined with Nord gearboxes and drive electronics in a modular system and will be available from the second quarter of 2020.

Torque motors with solid shaft and hollow shaft

29.11.2010/135/400 | The new generation of DST high torque motors in sizes XNUMX to XNUMX Baumüller In addition to the solid shaft version, it is now also available with a hollow shaft or integrated thrust bearing. The different versions of the DST motors provide more degrees of freedom in the design and enable optimal integration of the motor into the machine concept.

If in extruders more liquid during plasticizing Plastic is pressed out of the spray head, enormous pressure forces act in the direction of the motor shaft. Thrust bearings absorb these forces to ensure the axial Warehouseto compensate for loads and to protect the machine unit behind it. Baumüller now offers the latest generation of compact and powerful High torque motors DST In sizes 135, 200, 260, 315 and 400 there is an optional integrated thrust bearing.

This allows compressive forces up to 800 kN support. On the one hand, the bearing integrated into the motor eliminates the need for complex installation for the machine builder and, on the other hand, this design accommodates limited space in machines, because by integrating the bearing into the motor, it requires less installation space. The design also simplifies conversion and dismantling of the machine in the event of maintenance. With the help of a drilled shaft, the user can push the extruder screw forward, for example by using a spindle.

In addition to the solid shaft design and an optional integrated thrust bearing, the DST motors of all sizes are also available with a hollow shaft. Inside the hollow shaft is the accommodation of other parts such as one Ball screw possible, what a more compact machine concept allows. In addition, the cooling water for a roller or other media can be passed through.

The high-torque motors are high-pole, permanently excited synchronous motors with a torque spectrum up to 32.000 Nm. This makes the DST motor series with solid shaft, hollow shaft or thrust bearing particularly suitable for applications that require high torque at low speeds. The high protection class IP54 makes it possible to use it in an industrial environment. Within a certain tolerance range, the powerful motors have good overload capacity. Furthermore, they have very good concentricity properties and, due to their compact design, can be easily integrated into existing machine concepts and arranged close together.

Frequently asked questions

What is a synchronous motor?

A pair of  synchronous motor consists of a stator and a rotor or rotor and, like the asynchronous motor, is a three-phase motor. In contrast to the asynchronous motor, the rotor (rotor) runs synchronously with the rotating field. Because the excitation field does not arise automatically, additional excitation via a permanent magnet or electromagnet is required so that the rotating field (magnetic field) is generated. In the case of a three-phase synchronous motor, the speed is controlled via the power electronics, e.g. B. by a frequency converter. One advantage of these drives is their particularly high efficiency.

What is the difference between synchronous and asynchronous motors?

The main difference between a synchronous machine and asynchronous motors is their operation and the way the rotor is synchronized. Synchronous motors run at a constant speed regardless of the load, while asynchronous machines have a variable speed that depends on the load. They are simpler and more robust in construction.

Synchronous motors:

  • operation: The rotor of a synchronous motor rotates synchronously with the rotating magnetic field of the stator. This means that the rotor and rotating field speeds are always the same.
  • Benefits: High efficiency, constant speed regardless of load.
  • Disadvantages: Require a starter or frequency converter to start.

Asynchronous motors:

  • operation: The rotor of an asynchronous motor (also called an induction motor) rotates at a slightly lower speed than the rotating magnetic field of the stator. This difference in speed is called slip.
  • Benefits: Robust, cost-effective, simple construction.
  • Disadvantages: Lower efficiency than synchronous motors, speed varies with load.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the synchronous motor?

Advantages of synchronous motor:

  1. constant number of revolutions: Synchronous motors run synchronously with the mains frequency, which guarantees a constant speed regardless of the load. This is ideal for applications that require precise speed control.
  2. Height Efficiency: They are particularly efficient in operation because they have fewer energy losses and therefore cause lower operating costs.
  3. High power factor: Synchronous motors typically have a high power factor, which improves the efficiency of the entire system.
  4. Use in anspruchsvollen Applications: They are ideal for applications that require high precision and reliability, such as in power generation and industrial processes.

Disadvantages of synchronous motor:

  1. ComplexStarting: Synchronous motors require a special starter or frequency converter for starting, as they cannot start from a standstill.
  2. Costs: The purchase and operation of synchronous motors can be more expensive than asynchronous motors, especially due to the necessary control and regulation technology.
  3. MaintenanceEffort: Synchronous motors with brushes and slip rings require regular maintenance to ensure reliable function.
  4. Limitede Flexibility: They are less flexible with variable load and speed, which limits their application in certain scenarios.

When synchronous and when asynchronous motor?

Synchronous motors are often used in applications that require constant speed, such as generators, pumps and fans. Asynchronous motors are widely used in industrial applications and household appliances, e.g. B. in conveyor belts, washing machines and Compressors.

What types of synchronous motors are there?

  • Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) use permanent magnets in the rotor to generate the necessary magnetic field. They offer high efficiency and power density and are widely used in applications such as electric vehicles and industrial drives.
  • Electrically excited synchronous motors (EESM) use a separate field winding in the rotor that is powered by direct current. They can be used flexibly and are suitable for applications that require variable magnetic fields, such as in large generators and special industrial applications.
  • reluctance-Synchronous motors generate torque through the magnetic reluctance (resistance) of the rotor. They are particularly robust and cost-effective, but less efficient than PMSM. These motors are used in simple industrial applications and in the automotive industry.
  • Hybrid: Synchronous motors combine features of permanent magnet and reluctance motors to achieve better efficiency and higher performance. They are often used in applications that require a balance between cost and performance.

Source: This article is based on information from the following companies: Baumüller, BEN Buchele, GMN, Igus, Getriebebau Nord.

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Author information
Angela Struck

Angela Struck is editor-in-chief of the development scout and freelance journalist as well as managing director of Presse Service Büro GbR in Ried.