The advent of electric vehicles is ongoing and comes in small steps. In the still undetermined transition to electric mobility, the conventional drives and their hybrid variants need to be developed and optimized. Their gear will continue to play a central role. - That was a message from the CTI Symposium vehicle transmission, HEV and EV drives. In addition, the developments have caused a lot of attention around the CVT transmission. But the issue of functional safety and the discussion on the upper limit of the coefficient discussed about 1100 participants from 3. to 4. December 2013 in Berlin.
Prof. Dr. Ferit Küçükay welcomed the participants of the 12. CTI Symposium vehicle transmission, HEV and EV drives in an "atmosphere of positive trends in the automotive industry" and did not spare superlatives: the automotive industry produce and sell globally seen more vehicles than ever before. Even the sales in the European market declining for many years, is recovering again. In addition, as will never invested in the research and development of the automotive industry so much. The car companies are preparing for the stricter environmental requirements and have at the IAA never imagined so many vehicles with hybrid and electric drive as 2013. According to Prof. Küçükay existed but still many uncertainties about when the electric mobility of the breakthrough.
Dr. Herbert Demel, Special Advisor to the CEO and the Board of Magna sees the global volume growth of vehicles in mature markets such as Europe and NAFTA as stagnant. Thus, the importance of markets will subside and occupy only a quarter of the world market in 2027. In contrast, Asia will then come on 57 percent and the rest of the world on 20 percent.
Green, clean and networked in the future"Have already done our homework," That we, reported Dr. Ulrich Eichhorn, Director of Technology and the Environment at the VDA, "as we have in recent years the CO2Already reduced emissions by 40 percent, and reduces the pollution to 96 percent. Almost all previous CO2Savings have been achieved by optimizing the classical vehicle technology: through lightweight construction, improvements in the drive, improving efficiency of the engine or rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag reduction. "It's not so long ago, had an eight cylinder engine and four aisles, today it is the reverse."
Another trend is connected vehicles with numerous innovations such as obstacle avoidance, traffic light assistant, route-based weather alerts, electronic brake lights, the vehicle-to-vehicle communications and location-Place Services. The driverless driving finally opens up new possibilities: "When I come out of the hotel early, my car is already there," jokes Dr. Eichhorn. Also Prof. Küçükay sees in the techniques to looking ahead vehicles with the so-called Car-to-X communication and driver assistance systems, to the increasing focus of attention standing autonomous driving further potential for fuel and CO2Reduction.
Fun for the discerning customer
"A revolution is called for, and no longer the evolution," says Carsten wide-field, head i8 series, BMW, and mean by that the "advanced sports cars in the world" BMW i8. He had all the genes of a sports car needs such as performance, driving pleasure, uncompromising driving dynamics and sustainable driving. "In order to build a sports car with low fuel consumption and emissions-free driving, it is not enough to replace the internal combustion driven by an electric drive, but you have completely new ground," said wide field. So the Bavarian premium car manufacturer has a completely new architecture, called Live Drive Concept. This consists of two independent units: the Life module, the passenger cell made of carbon, and the Drive module with chassis and drive components as well as the HV battery. The secure storage of all drive components in the lower module, passengers have more space because there is no center tunnel divides the interior. The LifeDrive architecture resembles beyond not only the weight of the HV battery, but also lowers the center of gravity of the car.
Takashi Hata pointed several times to the great development successes in his transmission concept: "Our CVT today offer the required options driving pleasure and efficiency." For BMW manager wide field, however, a CVT for the BMW "certainly not in question" comes and Dr. Demel pointed out that the premium world in which it was in Germany, only five percent of the volume of the global automotive industry occupying and thus global plays only a small role.
Electric mobility in small steps
Surprisingly, it was how much space occupied by the subject of electrification at the symposium: DC several speakers stressed that the electric mobility indeed come, but could find their way in small steps. As the biggest challenges the batteries, the so called restricted range, but also the development of infrastructure were.
Prof. Dr. Dirk Uwe Sauer, Professor of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives, RWTH Aachen University, informed the participants about the current state of battery technology: "It boils down to the lithium-ion batteries, all other technologies play only a minor role, "he said. However, he holds a use of lithium-air and lithium-sulfur battery with their higher power densities after 2020 possible. The large, still growing number of battery manufacturers in the market already lead to significant cost reductions. The current performance of the batteries he gives up with 140 170 Wh / kg for 100 km range with a weight of up 100 150 kg. "We are in the lithium-ion batteries to see the explosion of energy densities, there are physical limits." The increase in power density sour looks at realistic three to four percent per year. The central challenge is to better understand the aging of the batteries. He appealed to give the battery a little more development time.
From Dr. Eichhorn's vision of electric mobility at the IAA at the dealership has arrived, now she had only the interest reach the customers. Whether the goal is to put one million electric cars on the road to 2020 is realistic, could tell from his point of view no one today. Also Dr. Demel describes the way for the electrification of cars as a long journey and not so quick to implement, as most people think.
Transmission concepts as diverse as neverAccording to Prof. Küçükay a coexistence of different concepts would continue stronger than ever belong to the transmission and drive landscape. The drive industry was in a drastic change, influenced by many trends such as the pursuit of high efficiency, high overall gear ratio, lower oil viscosity, needs-based intelligent actuators or high starting dynamics - all while maintaining comfort and high passage number, seems to be being here reaches an upper limit . "The increase in drivability and efficiency by choosing the right gear ratio and operating strategy are the focus," says the chairman of the event.
For Magna consultant Demel is clear that it is not the world car 'in the volume segment. Europeans and Americans are buying their cars for an average of 30.000 U.S. dollars, while China and India are paid on average 17.000 10.000 or U.S. dollars. This explains his view as follows: The technical solutions fall in the respective countries very different. In addition, a certain minimum level of electrification of cars like by Start / Stop technology will not prevail until 2020 to 100 but only to 50 percent. Thus the manual transmission even in 2019 will dominate with over 50 percent. Even if Dr. Demel the four courses of Dr. Robert Fischer, AVL List Managing Director, still "far away" look, he basically confirmed the direction of this assumption. He sees also - like some other speakers as well - a lot of potential in it to slowly transfer the gear production to suppliers. Briefly explains the whole blood motorist: "The EVT grow slowly, the AT will be declining, the CVT grown massively, as the DCT go back, the AMT on the electrification properly socially acceptable and are about to lay their weaknesses in the shift quality and the MT remain at the current level.
CVT in Japan on the riseA themed surprise delivered the interest on the lecture content to the CVT transmissions. This is currently enjoying an increasing interest in Asia, especially in Japan and the United States. Takashi Hata said to progress in this traditional gear Application: "The CVT technology is a flexible technology, you can always find a solution here, especially against the background that people adapt the world to the variety of traffic situations from the countryside to the megacities have. "
For Rooijmans Coen, senior vice president at the Dutch Bosch Transmission Technology, the CVT transmission with 20 percent of the automatic transmission market is the most popular gear. In the coming years, this value will still grow to 25 percent. For light to medium-heavy vehicles fuel economy is excellent. At the same time the CVT transmission for hybrid systems is an attractive solution because it offers a good driveability and fuel economy.
Discussion of legal requirements and transmission conceptsChallenge CO2 - How can the future be achieved? This subject took the panel discussion, which could shape the participants by TED survey. . If asked, "What legal requirements with respect to the CO2Limit value will have to adapt your opinion, the automobile manufacturers in the relevant markets for the year 2030? "Chosen two-thirds of the participants for 75 or 50 g CO2/ Km. Panelists Carsten wide field would be relaxed when that would occur, but fears to 2030 significantly more stringent limits, in certain local areas even at zero emission lying. Jörg Gotendorst, CEO of "Inside E-Car" business unit of Siemens AG, agreed to Mihi Kotecha, CEO of Getrag Corporate Group that there would be different objectives, depending on the region in which people live. For example, you'll have to drive in the metropolitan areas certainly no emissions. On the other hand, should not forget the power you need, have to cope with, especially megacities, if all be driving only electric. Rolf Najork, Chief Operating Officer, Heraeus Holding GmbH formerly Head of E-Mobility, mechatronics and R & D transmission and member of the Executive Board Automotive at the Schaeffler Technologies AG & Co KG, Herzogenaurach, points out that there still are the customer, of all the new developments in the direction of CO2Must buy savings also. Because in the context of emissions legislation, more and more technology must be installed into the car, not necessarily the customer would bring more benefit. MT, AMT, DCT, AT, CVT: 44 percent of the participants voted for the double-clutch transmission (DCT) to the question, could contribute to increase the efficiency of the conventional drive to 2030 which transmission concept the most. Mihi Kotecha was pleased with the result, but gave regarding CVT technology for which 17 percent of all participants decided to consider the following: "We are just beginning to learn and the CVT gearbox open up incredible opportunities." It was this technique so simple, said Takashi Hata. According to Dr. Fischer "makes Jatco CVT with his other gear manufacturers a lot of pressure." Fischer sees the gearbox concept 2030 depending on the motors used in the future, where one can "get out very much with the CVT, which only very finely stepped gears is otherwise possible" for engines with very narrow consumption maps. According to Fischer four gears are definitely enough to hybridized systems. So he will continue with the statement of his colleagues in a paper presented at the Symposium last year. Wide field appealed rather to focus on weight and efficiency and also says that one must reduce transitions.
More questions about efficiency, future engines and policy measures have also been actively discussed on the podium. After the two days of concentrated and informative automotive drive technology, it is more exciting than ever, how, when and where the electric mobility of the big breakthrough.